Know about the different types of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental health condition affecting a person’s mental health and behavior. It involves psychosis which means loss of connection with reality. 

The person suffering from schizophrenia shows various symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, anti-social behavior, reduced emotional expressions, manic or depressive signs. 

The person often tends to have false beliefs, hearing false voices leading to paranoia. The different forms of schizophrenia, each designated by an adjective, correspond to a more prominent aspect of the disease at a given time. 

This classification is based on the various psychosis and general behaviors observed among the patients. Though, the classification has changed over the years. A certain type is prominent in the patients.

These forms of schizophrenia are not fixed categories, since it is possible for the same patient to pass from one form to another and express his illness differently depending on the period.

 

Simple schizophrenia (or white psychosis):

The withdrawal and stereotypical life are encountered in this form, rarely a delusional syndrome. The negative symptoms are in the foreground: the impoverishment of socio-professional relations, the tendency to isolation, and autistic withdrawal into an inner world. 

The patient shows emotional coldness, seems incapable of expressing his feelings, shows disinterest in others, takes pleasure in loneliness. At the same time, he has strange behaviors, bizarre beliefs, and perceives unusual things. The person often hears false voices, assumes false beliefs. This form evolves slowly but very fast towards an increasingly marked deficit.

 

Paranoid schizophrenia:

It is the most common form of schizophrenia. In this form, the most observed and dominant characteristics are hallucinations, delusions of persecution, interpretive delirium, belief of being targeted in some conspiracy. 

The person also tends to feel being part of some malicious intrigue, overestimates oneself (starts to perceive the idea of greatness), tends to believe being part of some great mission, feels envy, jealous. 

The person often feels insecure, trapped in conspiracy always in doubt for people’s actions. The subject most often responds to anti-psychotic treatments.

 

Hebephrenic schizophrenia:

It represents 20% of schizophrenia. In hebephrenic forms, the disease begins in adolescence, and dissociative syndrome and withdrawal are prominent. The delusional elements are often absent. 

The drugs are administered in low doses. Their language is inconsistent, they seem indifferent to the outside world despite strong anxiety. The patient often seems to get anti-social, staying aloof from friends and family, downgrade in performance at school. Patients often refuse treatment. It is the most resistant form of therapy.

 

Schizoaffective disorder or dysthymic schizophrenia:

In dysthymic forms, the disease presents signs of schizophrenia accompanied by manic and/or hypomanic or symptoms of depression. These disorders resemble bipolar disorder but are distinguished by the presence of delusions or hallucinations for at least two weeks. The prognosis is quite good.

 

Catatonic schizophrenia

In catatonic forms, symptoms related to the body (such as stiffness, maintenance of attitudes), and cognitive deficit (with an absence of initiatives, the decline in skills, affective indifference, mutism) lead to the marginalization of patients who suffer. 

The person becomes less active and their reaction to the environment often decreases over time. There is disorganized speech like the person starts to repeat the words or sentences, may even echo the last words or sentences he hears or speaks, starts to imitate the gestures observed. The treatment is difficult and must aim to maintain food and a relational life for these patients. It is the most serious form of schizophrenia. But this form, subject to treatment, is rarely definitive.

 

Heboidophrenic forms:

The psychopathic component (anti-social behavior, with impulsivity, behavioral disturbances, risk of violence) is associated with cognitive symptoms and schizophrenic delirium. Sometimes the authors of more or less serious reprehensible acts (delinquency, thefts, assaults, vagrancy, drug addiction, etc.), are much more often defenseless and victims of the crime present in our society. The person becomes a threat to itself along to society. It is frequently encountered in people with social disruption. The delirium manifests itself in episodes.